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Working Guide to Reservoir Engineering



Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

Publish Date: 28th September 2009

ISBN-13: 9781856179003

Pages: 327

Language: English



Working Guide to Reservoir Engineering provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reservoir engineering. The book begins by discussing basic concepts such as types of reservoir fluids, the properties of fluid containing rocks, and the properties of rocks containing multiple fluids. It then describes formation evaluation methods, including coring and core analysis, drill stem tests, logging, and initial estimation of reserves. The book explains the enhanced oil recovery process, which includes methods such as chemical flooding, gas injection, thermal recovery, technical screening, and laboratory design for enhanced recovery. Also included is a discussion of fluid movement in waterflooded reservoirs.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Basic Principles, Definitions, and Data 1.1 Reservoir Fluids 1.1.1 Oil and Gas 1.1.2 Water 1.1.3 Fluid Viscosities 1.1.4 Formation Volume Factors 1.1.5 Fluid Compressibilities 1.1.6 Estimation of Fluid Properties with Programmable Calculators and Personal Computers 1.2 Properties of Fluid-Containing Rocks 1.2.1 Porosity 1.2.2 Pore Volume 1.2.3 Permeability 1.2.4 Absolute Permeability 1.2.5 Darcy Equation 1.2.6 Capacity 1.2.7 Transmissibility 1.2.8 Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity 1.2.9 Formation Resistivity Factor 1.2.10 Rock Compressibility 1.3 Properties of Rocks Containing Multiple Fluids 1.3.1 Total Reservoir Compressibility 1.3.2 Resistivity Index 1.3.3 Surface and Interfacial Tensions 1.3.4 Wettability and Contact Angle 1.3.5 Capillary Pressure 1.3.6 Effective Permeability 1.3.7 Relative Permeability 1.3.8 Effect of Wettability on Fluid-Rock Properties References Chapter 2 Formation Evaluation 2.1 Coring and Core Analysis 2.1.1 Coring 2.1.2 Core Preservation 2.1.3 Core Preparation 2.1.4 Core Analysis 2.2 Drill Stem Tests 2.3 Logging 2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Parameters that Can Be Calculated or Estimated from Logs 2.3.3 Influences on Logs 2.3.4 Openhole Logs and Interpretation 2.3.5 Special Openhole Logs and Services 2.4 Determination of Initial Oil & Gas in Place 2.4.1 Initial Oil in Place 2.4.2 Initial Gas in Place 2.4.3 Free Gas in Place 2.5 Productivity Index References Chapter 3 Mechanisms & Recovery of Hydrocarbons by Natural Means 3.1 Petroleum Reservoir Definitions [9] 3.2 Natural Gas Reservoirs [9] 3.3 Primary Recovery of Crude Oil 3.3.1 Statistical Analysis of Primary Oil Recovery 3.3.2 Empirical Estimates of Primary Oil Recovery 3.4 Primary Recovery Factors in Solution-Gas-Drive Reservoirs References Chapter 4 Fluid Movement in Waterflooded Reservoirs 4.1 Displacement Mechanisms 4.1.1 Buckley–Leverett Frontal Advance 4.1.2 Welge Graphical Technique 4.2 Viscous Fingering 4.3 Mobility and Mobility Ratio 4.4 Recovery Efficiency 4.5 Displacement Sweep Efficiency (ED) 4.6 Volumetric Sweep Efficiency (EV) 4.7 Areal or Pattern Sweep Efficiency (EP) 4.8 Vertical or Invasion Sweep Efficiency (EI) 4.9 Permeability Variation 4.9.1 Lorenz Coefficient 4.9.2 Dykstra–Parsons Coefficient of Permeability Variation 4.9.3 Crossflow 4.9.4 Estimates of Volumetric Sweep Efficiency 4.10 Estimation of Waterflood Recovery by Material Balance 4.11 Prediction Methods 4.12 Performance Evaluation 4.13 Injectivity and Injectivity Index 4.13.1 Injectivities for Various Flood Patterns 4.13.2 Monitoring Injectivity 4.13.3 Production Curves 4.13.4 Waterflood Parameters References Chapter 5 Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods 5.1 Definition 5.2 Chemical Flooding 5.2.1 Polymer-Augmented Waterflooding 5.2.2 Variations in the Use of Polymers 5.2.3 Surfactant and Alkaline Flooding 5.3 Gas Injection Methods 5.3.1 Hydrocarbon Miscible Flooding 5.3.2 Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding 5.3.3 Carbon Dioxide Flooding 5.4 Thermal Recovery 5.4.1 In-Situ Combustion 5.4.2 Steam Flooding 5.5 Technical Screening Guides 5.5.1 Hydrocarbon Miscible Flooding [12] 5.5.2 Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding [12] 5.5.3 Carbon Dioxide Flooding [12] 5.5.4 Surfactant/Polymer Flooding 5.5.5 Polymer Flooding [12] 5.5.6 Alkaline Flooding [12] 5.5.7 In-Situ Combustion [12] 5.5.8 Steamflooding [12] 5.5.9 Criteria for Gas Injection 5.5.10 Criteria for Chemical Methods 5.5.11 Criteria for Thermal Methods 5.5.12 Graphical Representation of Screening Guides 5.6 Laboratory Design for Enhanced Recovery 5.6.1 Preliminary Tests 5.6.2 Polymer Testing 5.6.3 Surfactant and Alkali Testing 5.6.4 CO2 Flooding 5.6.5 Thermal Recovery References Index