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Ultrasound, Volume 3


Author: F.J. Fry

Publisher: North Holland

Publish Date: 1st January 1978

ISBN-13: 9781483289571


Language: English



Methods and Phenomena, 3: Ultrasound: Its Applications in Medicine and Biology, Part II focuses on the applications of ultrasound in biology and medicine, including irradiation, acoustic attenuation, and impedance distribution.The selection first tackles selected non-thermal mechanisms of interaction of ultrasound and biological media, therapy with continuous wave ultrasound, and pulse echo visualization. Discussions focus on imaging properties, modes of operation, rationale for selecting ultrasound as a therapeutic agent, mechanical disarrangement of tissue structures, and wave distortion.The manuscript then examines a research approach to visualization of breast tumors by ultrasound methods, acoustic characterization of tissue at the microscopic level, and intense focused ultrasound. Concerns cover systems for irradiation with intense focused ultrasound, interaction of intense focused ultrasound and biological tissue, sonomicroscopic characterization of tissues, acoustic attenuation and impedance distribution, velocity of sound distribution, and methods of procedure. The book tackles cavitation and its effects on organized mammalian tissues and thermal mechanisms in ultrasound-tissue interactions.The selection is a valuable source of data for researchers interested in the applications of ultrasound in biology and medicine.

Table of Contents

Part II Contributors to Part II Chapter IX. Selected Non-Thermal Mechanisms of Interaction of Ultrasound and Biological Media 1. Introduction 2. Wave Distortion 3. Mechanical Disarrangement of Tissue Structures 3.1 Cyclic Tissue Movements 3.2 Streaming Movements, The Effect of the Summation of Cyclic and Streaming Velocities 3.3 The Effect of Structure Shape on Viscous Forces 4. Thermodynamic Effects References Chapter X. Therapy with Continuous Wave Ultrasound 1. Introduction 2. Rationale for Selecting Ultrasound as a Therapeutic Agent 2.1 Biophysics 2.2 Physiological Effects Resulting from Temperature Rise Due to Ultrasound Absorption 2.3 Physiological Effects Resulting from Non-Thermal Phenomena 2.4 Clinical Technique of Ultrasound Application and Dosimetry 2.5 Selective Heating of Joint Structures 2.6 Indications 2.7 Contraindications 2.8 Application of Pulsed Ultrasound 2.9 Characteristics of Suitable Equipment 2.10 Coupling Media 3. Summary References Chapter XI. Pulse Echo Visualization 1. Introduction 2. Modes of Operation 3. Properties of the Medium 4. Imaging Properties 4.1 Axial (Depth) Resolution 5. Azimuthal Response 6. Far Field 7. Resolution Cell 8. Imaging Rate 9. Artifacts 10. Practical Instrumentation 11. Clinical Applications 11.1 A-Mode 11.2 M-Mode 11.3 B-Mode 11.4 Obstetrics and Gynecology 11.5 Abdomen 11.6 Infant Brain 11.7 Eye 11.8 Breast 11.9 Thyroid 12. Future Developments 13. Conclusion References Chapter XII. A Research Approach to Visualization of Breast Tumors by Ultrasound Methods 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. Methods of Procedure 4. Results 5. Discussion 6. Summary 7. Acknowledgements References Chapter XIII. Acoustic Characterization of Tissue at the Microscopic Level—Sonohistology 1. Introduction 2. Technique 3. Sonomicroscopic Characterization of Tissues 4. Acoustic Attenuation and Impedance Distribution 5. Velocity of Sound Distribution 6. Results and Discussion References Chapter XIV. Intense Focused Ultrasound: Its Production, Effects and Utilization 1. Introduction 2. Systems for Irradiation with Intense Focused Ultrasound 2.1 Calibration 3. Interaction of Intense Focused Ultrasound and Biological Tissue 3.1 Lesions in Other Tissues 4. Applications 4.1 Quantitative Neuroanatomy 4.2 Human Clinical Series 5. Conclusion References Appendix I. Cavitation and its Effects on Organized Mammalian Tissue—A Summary Appendix II. Thermal Mechanisms in Ultrasound-Tissue Interactions—A Summary Index, I-1-I-4 Contents of Part I Chapter I. Physical Principles of Ultrasound Chapter II. Cavitation: Dynamics of Gas Bubbles; Applications Chapter III. Doppler Principles and Techniques Chapter IV. Transducers for Ultrasonic Systems Chapter V. Ultrasonic Dosimetry Chapter VI. Ultrasonic Absorption and Dispersion Chapter VII. Scattering of Ultrasound by Human Tissue Chapter VIII. Acoustic Impedance Profiling (Analytical and Physical Model Study)