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The Psychophysiology of Thinking


Author: F Mcguigan

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 1st January 1973

ISBN-13: 9780323147002

Pages: 528

Language: English



The Psychophysiology of Thinking: Studies of Covert Processes describes the relation between brain events and peripheral bodily phenomena in the context of psychological theory. This book is organized into six parts encompassing 14 chapters, which focus on higher mental processes. This book starts with the historical development of electrical measures of covert processes. The subsequent chapters discuss the mechanism of conditioning of central nervous system, the skeletal musculature, and the autonomic activity. Other chapters explore the principles of hallucinations, sleep and dreaming, imagery, biofeedback, evoked potentials during thought, meaning, and thought with concomitant measures. The remaining chapters emphasize cerebral mechanisms, which principal concern is with the involvement of other bodily mechanisms in thought. Psychophysiologists, neurobiologists, behaviorists, and researchers in the fields of thinking and covert processes will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors Preface Introduction 1. Electrophysiology of Mental Activities and Introduction to the Psychological Process of Thinking The Discussion of Dr. Jacobson’ s Paper Open Discussion References and Supporting Publications Emphasis on Central Nervous System—Primaryil Electroencephalogmra 2. The Operant Conditioning of the Electrical Activity of the Brain as a Method for Controlling Neural and Mental Processes I. Introduction II. The Processes Controlled by Operant Neural Conditioning III. Operant Neural Conditioning as a Method of Control IV. Efficiency of Conditioning: Feedback and Constraints on Conditioning V. Operant Neural Conditioning as a Method for Studying Functional Significance VI . Conclusion The Discussion of Dr. Black’s Presentation Open Discussion References 3. Evoked Potentials of the Brain Related to Thinking I. Experimental Design II. Average Evoked Potential from One Subject III. Analysis of Group Data IV. CNV and AEP V. AEP Changes with Learning VI. Discussion VII. Conclusions References The Discussion of Dr. Chapman’s Paper Open Discussion References 4. Objective EEG Methods for Studying Covert Shifts of Visual Attention I. Introduction II. Neurophysiological Basis for Changes in the EEG Related to Visual Attention Open Discussion References 5. The Psychophysiology of Mental Activity during Sleep I. Description of the Stages of Sleep II. Relationship of Mental Activity to Sleep Stages III. Temporal Correlates IV. EEG Correlates V. Motor Activity VI. Cardiac and Respiratory Activity VII. Electrodermal Activity VIII. Penile Erections IX. Temperature X. Sympathetic Arousal XI. Eye Movement Activity XII. Phasic Events XIII. Phasic Events and Other Physiological Variables References The Discussion of Dr. Rechtscharfen’ s Paper Open Discussion References Emphasis on Central Nervous System—Primarily Surgical Approachase 6. Lateral Specialization of Cerebral Function in the Surgically Separated Hemispheres The Discussion of Dr. Sperry’s Paper Open Discussion References Emphasis on Peripheral Measures—Primarily Autonomic Behavior 7. The Role of Consciousness and Cognition in Autonomic Behavior Change The Discussion of Dr. Grings’s Paper Open Discussion References 8. Psychophysiological Correlates of Imagery I. Theoretical Definition of Imagery II. Electroencephalographic Studies III. Eye Movements and Imagery IV. Pupillary Reactions during Imagery Tasks The Discussion of Dr. Paivio’s Paper Open Discussion References Emphasis on Peripheral Measures—Primarily Electromyogram 9. Hallucinations: An Experimental Approach I. Hypnotically Induced Hallucinations II. Conditioned Hallucinations The Discussion of Dr. Hefferline’s Paper Open Discussion References 10. Electrical Measurement of Covert Processes as an Explication of “Higher Mental Events” I. On the Genesis of the Problem of “Mind,” and of a Natural Science Approach to “Mental Processes” II. Development of Experimental Techniques III. Language Stimuli as an Indicator of Thinking IV. Internal Information Processing V. Measurement of Covert Oral Behavior VI. Summary VII. Systematic Changes in the Amplitude of Covert Oral Behavior VIII. Summary and Preliminary Interpretation IX. Study of Patterns of Covert Processes X. Mediational Processes XI. Concluding Statement The Discussion of Dr. McGuigan’s Paper Open Discussion References 11. Biofeedback Techniques and the Conditions for Hallucinatory Activity I. Inferences about Consciousnes II. Between Sleep and Wakefulness III. On the Conditions for Hallucinatory Activity IV. Summary of Argument The Discussion of Dr. Stoyva’s Paper Open Discussion References Integrative Approaches 12. Central Processes Controlling Speech Production during Sleep and Waking I. Lashley’s Views on Serial Order in Behavior II. Phoneme-Based Models of Speech Production III. The “Motor Command” Hypothesis IV. The “Target” Hypothesis V. The Role of Sensory Feedback VI. The Multiplicity of Functional Units VII. The Implications of Speech Errors VIII. An Hierarchical Schema for Speech Production IX. A Contemporary Associative Chain Model X. Speech Production during Sleep XI. Subvocal Activity during Sleep XII. Physiological Correlates of Sleep Talking XIII. Language Behavior during Sleep: Further Questions XIV. The Verbal Component of Dream Content XV. Speech Errors in Sleep-Talking Episodes The Discussion of Dr. MacNeilage’s Paper Open Discussion References 13. Psychophysiological Correlates of Meaning: Essences or Tracers? I. Two-Stage (Representational) Neobehaviorism II. Universals of Affective Meaning III. Three-Stage (Integrational) Neobehaviorism IV. Central Versus Peripheral Facilitation of Perception V. On the Nature and Nurture of Tracers of M The Discussion of Dr. Osgood’s Paper Open Discussion References 14. Final Open Discussion Author Index Subject Index