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The Psychology of Human Memory


Author: Arthur WingfieldDennis L. Byrnes

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 1st January 1981

ISBN-13: 9781483259437

Pages: 444

Language: English



The Psychology of Human Memory presents a comprehensive discussion on the principles of human memory. The book is primarily concerned with theories and experiments on the acquisition and use of information. Topics on theoretical ideas that formed the basis for the earliest studies of memory; memory processes; aspects of association theory; capacity limitations; coding processes; types of memories; and applied memory research are also tackled. Psychologists, educators, psychiatrists, and students will find the book a good reference material.

Table of Contents

Contents 1 Introduction and Overview Topic Questions What is Memory? Memory Processes Acquisition Retention Retrieval Memory Structures Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Levels of Processing Theoretical Approaches to Memory Associationism Cognitive Psychology Information Processing The Search for Memory Chapter Summary 2 Long-term Memory and the Ebbinghaus Tradition Topic Questions Historical Background The British Associationists Ebbinghaus and the Nonsense Syllable Procedures in Verbal Learning Methods of Learning Measures of Retention Recall versus Recognition Interference in Memory Decay versus Interference And So to Sleep The Status of Decay Theory Varieties of Interference The RI Paradigm The PI Paradigm Context-Dependent Memory Acquisition and Interference Stage Analysis of Interference Tasks Transfer Experiments and Similarity Interference and Ordinary Forgetting Chapter Summary 3 Associations and Forgetting in long-term Memory Topic Questions Interference Theories of Forgetting Research Strategy Response Competition Unlearning Unlearning as Extinction Testing the Two-Factor Theory Some Problems for Factor X Measuring Unlearning Evaluation of the Two-Factor Theory Elaborations and Amendments to Interference Theory Response Set Interference Stimulus Encoding Variability Interference and Forgetting: Conclusions The Concept of Mediation Natural Language Mediation Image Mediation and Mnemonics Organization in Free Recall Associative Clustering Category Clustering Organization: Storage or Recall? Mediation and Organization: Conclusions Chapter Summary 4 Meaning and Knowledge: Studies of Semantic Memory Topic Questions The Bartlett Tradition: Reconstructive Memory Memory and Meaning: Another Look at Interference Memory for Themes Inference in Memory Studies of Semantic Integration Imagery and Inference The Role of Context in Thematic Memory Organization in Memory The TOT Phenomenon A Case of Impaired Memory Search Models of Semantic Memory A Network Model of Semantic Memory Human Associative Memory (HAM) A Semantic Features Model Spreading Activation within a Network Model Episodic and Semantic Memory Revisited The Intelligent Computer Constructive Memory: A Model that Reasons The Talking Computer 128 Another Look at Inference: Script and Text Processing Chapter Summary 5 Coding Processes: I. Sensory MemorY Topic Questions A Memory System: Structure versus Process A Structural Model of Memory A Process Model of Memory The First Stage: Sensory Memory Visual Sensory Memory How Much Can We See in a Glance? The Duration of Iconic Memory The Content of Iconic Memory Interpretations of Iconic Memory Auditory Sensory Memory The Cocktail Party Problem The Duration of Echoic Memory The Content of Echoic Memory Sensory Memory and a Process Model Chapter Summary 6 Coding Processes: II. Attention and Capacity Topic Questions Aspects of Attention Definitions of Attention Some Limits on Attention: Back to the Cocktail Party Two Concepts of Selective Attention The Early Experiments Shadowing Experiments Split-Span Experiments Time-Sharing Models of Attention Broadbent’s Filter Theory An Attenuating Filter Further Evidence Capacity Models of Attention It Takes Attention to Pay Attention What Requires Capacity? Flexibility and Task Demands Data-Limited versus Resource-Limited Processes Early versus Late Selection: Take Your Choice Chapter Summary 7 Short-Term Memory Topic Questions Approaches to Short-Term Memory Consciousness and Primary Memory Short-Term Memory as a Structural Store Process Views of Memory The Duplex Hypothesis The Capacity of Short-Term Memory Retrieval from Short-Term Memory The Content of Short-Term Memory 253 Acoustic Confusions in Short-Term Memory Acoustic versus Articulatory Coding Coding Formats in Short- versus Long-Term Memory Forgetting in Short-Term Memory Distractor Tasks Serial Probe Tasks Serial Position Effects Chapter Summary 8 Levels of Processing and Mental Representation Topic Questions Levels of Processing Depth of Processing and Retention Task Demands and Depth of Processing Rehearsal Revisited Elaboration and Retrieval of Memory Codes: Amendments to the Framework Elaboration and Spread of Encoding Encoding Distinctiveness Encoding Specificity and Compatibility Depth and Attentional Resources The Status of Short-Term Memory Memory Deficits Following Brain Damage A Concluding View of Short-Term Memory Visual Memory The Early Confrontation Studies of Picture Memory and Mental Rotation Concepts of Visual Imagery Dual-Coding versus Abstract Coding Detection in Memory: An Extended Analogy Signal Detection Theory Back to Recognition Memory Chapter Summary 9 Memory Research on Applied Problems Topic Questions Eyewitness Testimony Estimator Variables System Variables Learning How to Learn Knowing About Remembering What Children Know About Knowing Strategies for Remembering Overcoming Short-Term Memory Mnemonics Meaningful Organization Individual Differences and Memory An Extraordinary Memory Abilities and the Functions of Memory Aging and Memory Memory Constraints and Modern Technology Capacity and Processing Limitations Sleep and Biological Rhythms Chapter Summary References Name Index Subject Index