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Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods



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Author: Basil JarvisBasil Jarvis

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 1st July 2008

ISBN-13: 9780080559377

Pages: 336

Language: English

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Description

For many biologists, statistics are an anathema; but statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative data is of considerable importance. Although spreadsheet software provides a diverse range of statistical tools, users are usually unsure which technique should be used. This book provides the basic statistical theory and practice to understand the types of tests frequently needed for the assessment of microbiological data. No prior knowledge of statistical techniques is required. Even when data can be given to a professional statistician for analysis, the microbiologist needs to have at least a general understanding of the underlying basis of statistical procedures in order to communicate effectively with the statistician. The book contains many worked examples to illustrate the use of the techniques and provides a plethora of references both to standard statistical works and to relevant original scientific papers on food microbiology.

Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF EXAMPLES PREFACE Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Chapter 2: SOME BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS POPULATIONS LOTS AND SAMPLES AVERAGE SAMPLE POPULATIONS STATISTICS AND PARAMETERS VARIANCE AND ERROR THE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM Chapter 3: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS TYPES OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION STATISTICAL PROBABILITY THE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION (σ2 μ) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS TRANSFORMATIONS Chapter 4: THE DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISMS IN FOODS IN RELATION TO SAMPLING RANDOM DISTRIBUTION REGULAR DISTRIBUTION CONTAGIOUS (HETEROGENEOUS) DISTRIBUTIONS EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE Chapter 5: STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF SAMPLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ATTRIBUTES AND VARIABLES SAMPLING BINOMIAL AND TRINOMIAL DISTRIBUTIONS ACCURACY OF THE SAMPLE ESTIMATE ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING BY ATTRIBUTES ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING BY VARIABLES Chapter 6: ERRORS IN THE PREPARATION OF LABORATORY SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS LABORATORY SAMPLING ERRORS DILUENT VOLUME ERRORS PIPETTE VOLUME ERRORS OTHER SOURCES OF ERROR CALCULATION OF THE RELATIVE DILUTION ERROR EFFECTS OF GROSS DILUTION SERIES ERRORS ON THE DERIVED COLONY COUNT Chapter 7: ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONY COUNT PROCEDURES SPECIFIC TECHNICAL ERRORS PIPETTING AND DISTRIBUTION ERRORS LIMITING PRECISION AND CONFIDENCE LIMITS OF THE COLONY COUNT GENERAL TECHNICAL ERRORS COMPARABILITY OF COLONY COUNT METHODS OVERALL ERROR OF COLONY COUNT METHODS Chapter 8: ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTAL RESPONSE METHODS DILUTION SERIES AND ITS MOST PROBABLE NUMBER COUNTS MULTIPLE TEST DILUTION SERIES QUANTIFICATION BASED ON RELATIVE PREVALENCE OF DEFECTIVES SOME STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF MULTI-STAGE TESTS Chapter 9: STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF OTHER METHODS IN QUANTITATIVE MICROBIOLOGY DIRECT MICROSCOPIC METHODS Howard Mould Count INDIRECT METHODS Chapter 10: MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ACCURACY AND PRECISION MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY HOW IS UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATED? REPORTING OF UNCERTAINTY SAMPLING UNCERTAINTY THE USE OF UNCERTAINTY MEASURES IN ASSESSING COMPLIANCE Chapter 11: ESTIMATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY THE ‘GENERALIZED UNCERTAINTY METHOD’ (GUM) OR BOTTOM-UP PROCEDURE THE TOP-DOWN APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) ROBUST METHODS OF ANOVA MEASUREMENT OF INTERMEDIATE REPRODUCIBILITY ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTAL METHODS Chapter 12: STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL USING MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA WHAT IS SPC? TREND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR SPC SETTING CONTROL LIMITS SHEWHART’S CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES DATA CONCLUSION Chapter 13: VALIDATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR FOOD THE STAGES OF METHOD DEVELOPMENT WHAT IS VALIDATION? FUTURE DIRECTIONS Chapter 14: RISK ASSESSMENT, FOOD SAFETY OBJECTIVES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR FOODS FOOD SAFETY OBJECTIVES AND RISK ASSESSMENT MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA THE RELEVANCE OF MICROBIAL MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY TO MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA CONCLUSION INDEX