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Neuronal and Glial Proteins


Author: Paul Marangos

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 28th January 1987

ISBN-13: 9780323151566

Pages: 410

Language: English



Neuronal and Glial Proteins: Structure, Function, and Clinical Application focuses on the basic and clinical information relating to a number of proteins that are either enriched in or unique to nervous tissue. This book discusses the structural and functional characteristics of cell-specific proteins, which provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in processes that are specific to glia or neurons. Organized into three sections encompassing 15 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the fundamental principles and strategies involved in studying the anatomical, structural, functional, and immunological aspects of brain protein. This text then discusses the techniques, including the preparation of brain tissues as well as the preparation of neural and glial cells in purified form. Other chapters review the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is recognized as a significant technique for discovering brain molecules. The final chapter deals with the membrane-associated nervous system proteins. Neurochemists and clinical researchers will find this book useful.

Table of Contents

Preface Section I Methods of Identifying and Modifying Brain Proteins 1. Preparation of Cellular and Subcellular Fractions from the Central Nervous System I. Introduction II. Preparation of Subcellular Fractions III. Neural Cell Preparations IV. Bulk-Isolation of Cells from Brain V. Preparation of Plasma Membranes from Bulk-Isolated Cells VI. Summary References 2. The Use of Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis to Study Proteins in the Central Nervous System I. Introduction II. Methodology III. Studies on Central Nervous System Proteins Using 2DE IV. Clinical Application of 2DE in the Study of Central Nervous System Proteins V. Conclusions References 3. Immunological Approaches to the Identification of Cell Surface Specific Antigens in Brain I. Introduction II. Antibody Production III. Antibody Screening and Analysis IV. Antibodies in Neurobiology V. Monoclonal Antibodies Used to Study Tumors of the Nervous System VI. Clinical Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies against Nervous System Antigens References 4. Methods of Localizing Cell-Specific Proteins in Brain I. Introduction II. Cell-Specific Proteins—Measurement versus Localization III. Fixation, Processing, and Detection IV. Interpretation of Immunocytochemical Results V. Application—Developing Brain Tissue VI. Application—Tissue Culture VII. Application—Human Pathology VIII. Role of Localization with Other Methodologies References 5. Protein Phosphorylation: A Convergence Site for Multiple Effector Pathways I. Introduction II. Protein Kinases III. Protein Kinase Substrates IV. Multisite Phosphorylation of Enzymes V. Multisite Phosphorylation of Structural Proteins VI. Multisite Phosphorylation of Receptors VII. Closing Remarks VIII. Conclusions References Section II Soluble Nervous System Proteins 6. Neuron-Specific Enolase: A Neural and Neuroendocrine Protein I. Introduction II. Functional Characterization of the 14-3-2 Protein III. Structure of the Brain Enolases IV. Tissue Distribution and Cellular Localization of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Nonneuron Enolase V. Developmental and Molecular Biological Aspects of Neuron-Specific Enolase VI. Enzymologic Differences between Nonneuron Enolase and Neuron-Specific Enolase VII. Clinical Studies VIII. Concluding Remarks References 7. The S-100 Protein I. Introduction and History II. Purification of S-100 III. Antibodies and Immunology IV. Distribution of S-100 in Neural and Nonneural Tissues V. Species Comparisons and Evolution VI. Development VII. Structure and Chemistry of S-100 Protein VIII. The S-100 Protein in Tumors IX. Function of S-100 Protein X. Summary and Future Work References 8. Growth Factors for the Nervous System I. Nerve Growth Factor II. Other Factors Acting on Cells from the Nervous System References 9. Protein Gene Product 9.5: A New Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Marker I. Introduction II. Properties of PGP 9.5 III. Production of Antibodies to Human PGP 9.5 IV. Possible Functional Roles and Primary Structure of PGP 9.5 References Section III Membrane-Associated Nervous System Proteins 10. Structural, Functional, and Clinical Aspects of Myelin Proteins I. Introduction II. Myelin III. Major Protein Components of Central Nervous System Myelin IV. Proteins of Peripheral Nervous System Myelin V. Nonenzyme-Catalyzed Alterations of Myelin Proteins VI. Immunological Studies VII. Molecular Genetics VIII. Infectious Agents IX. Conclusions References 11. Myelin Proteolipid Protein I. Introduction II. Isolation and Identification III. Properties of Proteolipid Apoprotein IV. Biosynthesis of the Myelin Proteolipid Protein V. Posttranslational Modification: Acylation VI. Molecular and Genetic Approaches VII. Proteolipids in Disease VIII. Functions of the Myelin Proteolipid IX. Future Directions References 12. Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: Functional and Clinical Aspects I. Introduction II. General Properties of Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein III. Functional Aspects IV. Clinical Aspects V. Conclusions References 13. Microtubules: Structural, Functional, and Clinical Aspects I. Introduction II. Methods Used in the Study of Microtubules III. Microtubule Assembly-Disassembly IV. Functions of Microtubules V. Clinical Aspects and Applications References 14. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: A Review of Structure, Function, and Clinical Application I. Introduction II. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Chemistry III. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Immunochemistry IV. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Metabolism V. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Reactive Astrogliosis VI. Vimentin in Central Nervous System Development and Reactive Astrogliosis VII. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Clinical Studies VIII. Future Prospectives References 15. Thy-1: Possible Functions in Nervous and Immune Systems I. Introduction II. Evidence from Structure III. Evidence from Tissue Distribution IV. Evidence from Antibody Perturbation of Cellular Function V. Evidence from Genetic Manipulation VI. Conclusions and Prospects References Index