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HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, Volume 55



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Author: Kuan-Teh JeangJ. AugustFerid Murad

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 13th June 2007

ISBN-13: 9780080548326

Pages: 488

Language: English

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Description

This volume covers the latest advances in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of the HIV-1 virus on target cells. Its companion volume, Advances in Pharmacology 56, shows how new developments in understanding the virus translate to the clinical setting.

Table of Contents

HIV-1 RNA Packaging Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III The Packaging Pathway IV RNA/Protein Recognition for Encapsidation: Molecular and Structural Biology V Conclusions Structure and Function of the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein as Entry Mediator, Vaccine Immunogen, and Target for Inhibitors Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Structure of the Env (gp120–gp41) IV Env Interactions with CD4 and Coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) Leading to Membrane Fusion V Env Interactions with Antibodies VI The Env as Vaccine Immunogen and Target for Inhibitors VII Conclusions Acknowledgments HIV-1 Reverse Transcription: Close Encounters Between the Viral Genome and a Cellular tRNA Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Reverse Transcription IV Specificity of tRNA Primer Usage V Identification of the PAS Motif VI Proposed Mechanism of Primer Activation VII HIV-1 Replication with a Nonself tRNA Primer Confirms the Importance of the PAS Motif VIII Conclusions Acknowledgments Transcription of HIV: Tat and Cellular Chromatin Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Integrated HIV-1 LTR and Cellular Chromatin IV The HIV-1 Tat Protein and Its Modifications V Tat-Mediated Transactivation V Conclusions Acknowledgments Posttranscriptional Control of HIV-1 and Other Retroviruses and Its Practical Applications Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III HIV-1 Regulation of Gene Expression IV Rev and Its Export Receptor CRM1 V Posttranscriptional Regulation of Other Complex Retroviruses VI HIV-1 mRNAs Use Multiple Mechanisms to Express Many Proteins from One Transcript VII Rev-Dependence of HIV-1 mRNAs VIII Use of RNA Optimization to Achieve High Level of HIV-1 gag/pol and env Expression Plasmids IX Posttranscriptional Control of Simple Retroviruses X NXF1 XI Cellular CTEs XII Posttranscriptional Control of LTR-Retroelements XIII Comparison of RNA Export Systems XIV Replacement of Rev Regulation Leads to SIV Attenuation XV Conclusions Acknowledgments HIV Accessory Genes Vif and Vpu Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Vif: A Potent Regulator of Viral Infectivity III The HIV-1-Specific Vpu Protein Interactions of HIV-1 Viral Protein R with Host Cell Proteins Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Effects of HIV-1 Vpr on Host Cellular Activities IV Activation and Counteraction of Host Immune Responses by Vpr V Development of Anti-Vpr Therapies Acknowledgment HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Inhibition Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Mature Protease: Structure, Dynamics, and Relationship to Function IV Active Site Inhibitors and Drug Resistance V Dissociation of the Mature Protease Dimer and Characterization of the Monomeric Structure VI Insights into the Structure of the Protease Precursor and Its Maturation Acknowledgments Properties, Functions, and Drug Targeting of the Multifunctional Nucleocapsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II The NC Protein: The Story So Far III The Structure of HIV-1 NC IV The Network of NC Functions V The Role of NC in HIV-1 Assembly VI The Role of NC in HIV-1 Variability and Fitness VII Anti-NC Drug Screening VIII Conclusions and Future Prospects Acknowledgments Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Overview of HIV-1 Assembly, Release, and Maturation III Multimerization of Gag to Form the Structural Framework of the Immature Virus Particle IV Encapsidation of the Viral RNA Genome V Trafficking Virion Components to the Site of Assembly VI Acquisition of a Lipid Bilayer and Associated Env Glycoproteins VII Virus Particle Release VIII Generating a Mature Infectious Virion IX HIV Assembly and Maturation as Targets for New Antiretroviral Drugs Acknowledgments Role of Nef in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenesis Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III Nef and HIV-1 Infection of PBMCs IV Nef Studies in Human Thymic Systems V Mechanism of Nef Enhancement of Replication and Pathogenesis VI Conclusions Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir for HIV-1 Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III What is the Latent Reservoir? IV Resistance: Mechanism of Storage in the Latent Reservoir and Its Clinical Implications V Genotypic and Phenotypic Assays: Treatment Implications of the Latent Reservoir VI Drug Development: Taking the Latent Reservoir into Account VII Conclusions RNA Interference and HIV-1 Publisher Summary I Chapter Overview II Introduction III siRNA as Anti-HIV Therapy IV HIV-1 Remodels Cellular miRNA Expression in Infected Cells V Does HIV-1 Encode miRNAs? VI Future Perspectives Acknowledgment