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Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology



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Author: Pascal KintzAlberto SalomoneMarco Vincenti

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 10th July 2015

ISBN-13: 9780128017104

Pages: 392

Language: English

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Description

Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology is an essential reference for toxicologists working with, and researching, hair analysis. The text presents a review of the most up-to-date analytical methods in toxicological hair analysis, along with state-of-the-art developments in the areas of hair physiology, sampling, and pre-treatments, as well as discussions of fundamental issues, applications, and results interpretation.Topics addressed include the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol drinking by means of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), the early detection of new psychoactive substances, including designer drugs, the development of novel approaches to screening tests based on mass spectrometry, and the detection of prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances from the analysis of newborn hair.

Table of Contents

Foreword List of Contributors Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of Hair, and Principles for its Collection 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Hair Anatomy and Physiology 1.3 Classification of Hair Types 1.4 Hair Growth Rates 1.5 Hair Color 1.6 Mechanisms of Drug Incorporation 1.7 Incorporation from the Bloodstream, Sebum and Sweat 1.8 Incorporation from External Contamination 1.9 Dose–Response Relationship 1.10 Melanin Binding 1.11 Sample Collection Protocols 1.12 Collection Procedure 1.13 Discussion 1.14 Conclusion References Chapter 2. Hair Sample Preparation, Extraction, and Screening Procedures for Drugs of Abuse and Pharmaceuticals 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sample Preparation 2.3 Analyte Extraction 2.4 Screening Strategies 2.5 Concluding Remarks References Chapter 3. External Contamination: Still a Debate? 3.1 Introduction 3.2 External Contamination: Commonly Encountered Drugs 3.3 Alcohol: FAEE and EtG 3.4 Concluding Remarks References Chapter 4. Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Alcohol Amount, Drinking Pattern, and Minor Metabolites of Ethanol in Hair 4.3 Ethyl Glucuronide 4.4 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters 4.5 Combined Use of EtG and FAEEs 4.6 Comparison of EtG and FAEE in Hair with Other Alcohol Markers 4.7 Practical Applications of EtG and FAEE in Hair 4.8 Cocaethylene 4.9 Outlook References Chapter 5. Clinical Applications of Hair Analysis 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Hair Analysis in Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health 5.3 Clinical Applications of Hair Cortisol Analysis 5.4 Future Clinical Applications of Hair Testing References Chapter 6. Experiences in Child Hair Analysis 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Age as a Factor of Influence of Drug Distribution 6.3 Differences in Children’s Hair versus Adults 6.4 Case Reports 6.5 Conclusion and Perspectives References Chapter 7. Hair Analysis for the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Organic Pollutants 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Challenge of Assessing Environmental Exposure 7.3 Sample Pretreatment References Chapter 8. Workplace Drug Testing 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Ideal Matrix in the Workplace Scenario 8.3 Evidence that a Hair Drug Test Detects More Users than Urine 8.4 Procedures for Drug Testing Using Hair 8.5 Accreditation 8.6 Interpretation and Reporting 8.7 Hair Analysis in the Workplace 8.8 Conclusions References Chapter 9. Forensic Applications of Hair Analysis 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Advantages of Hair Analysis 9.3 Limitations of Hair Analysis 9.4 Applications of Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology References Chapter 10. Doping, Applications of Hair Analysis 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Hair Testing for Positive Identification of Prohibited Substances 10.3 Hair Testing as Additional Evidence in Presumptive Doping Cases 10.4 Hair Testing for Doping Control in Animals References Chapter 11. Detection of New Psychoactive Substances 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The Challenge of NPS Detection 11.3 Ketamine 11.4 Synthetic Cathinones 11.5 Synthetic Cannabinoids 11.6 Conclusions Acknowledgments References Chapter 12. New Challenges and Perspectives in Hair Analysis 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Conditioning Factors and Sources of Variability 12.3 Innovative Technologies and Instrumental Advancements References Index