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Community-Based Psychological First Aid



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Author: Gerard Jacobs

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

Publish Date: 2nd June 2016

ISBN-13: 9780128043585

Pages: 234

Language: English

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Description

Community-Based Psychological First Aid: A Practical Guide to Helping Individuals and Communities during Difficult Times presents a practical method for helping those in need in difficult times. No advanced training in psychology is needed to use it.Injuries from disasters, terrorist events, and civil unrest are not just physical. These events also cause psychological trauma that can do lasting damage. Psychological First Aid (PFA) draws on human resilience and aims to reduce stress systems and help those affected recover. It is not professional psychotherapy, and those providing this kind of aid do not need a degree to help. Gerard Jacobs has developed this community-based method of delivering PFA over 20 years and has taught it in over 30 countries.Along with the easy-to-follow method, Jacobs includes examples of how this works in action in different situations, and presents scenarios to practice. Unique in its approach of community engagement to train community members to help each other, this guide is an excellent resource for local emergency managers to engage in whole community emergency management.

Table of Contents

Dedication About the Author Acknowledgments 1: What is community-based psychological first aid? Abstract Introduction It Is Not Always Obvious Some Cautionary Notes PFA in a Community Context 2: On being a helper and providing CBPFA Abstract The Art of Helping Characteristics of Effective Helpers Accepting Yourself in the Role of a Helper How to Begin 3: Individual differences in responses to stress Abstract A Model of Individual Reactions to Stress Two Examples to Illustrate the Model Each Person’s Response is Unique How Someone Can be Helped to Reduce Their Stress Reactions 4: Traumatic stress Abstract Emotional Reactions Physical Reactions Behavioral Reactions Cognitive Reactions Individual Differences in Traumatic Stress Reactions When to Seek Professional Help 5: The stress of disasters Abstract What Makes One Disaster More Stressful Than Another? How Stress Changes Through the Course of a Disaster 6: Active listening Abstract The BESTT EARS Model Nonverbal Aspects of Active Listening: BESTT Verbal Aspects of Active Listening: EARS Emotional Aspects of Listening Cognitive Aspects of Listening Closing Thoughts on Active Listening 7: Problem-solving Abstract Stop Options Decide Act Evaluate Acceptable Responses 8: Coping with stress Abstract Basic Coping Strategies Getting Adequate Sleep Eating Well Exercise Coping After a Traumatic Event Overcoming Challenges to Coping Participating in Recovery Efforts Can Be Healing 9: Providing instrumental (practical) assistance Abstract Preparation After Traumatic Events: Emergency Phase Recovery Phase after Traumatic Events Summary 10: Loss and grieving Abstract What to Say Cultural Differences and Rituals Stages of Grief Grief Without Death Referrals 11: When and how to refer Abstract Who Would You Go To for Help? Alarm Bells—When to Worry In Summary 12: Privacy and ethical considerations Abstract Human Value Ethics 13: Taking care of yourself while you support others Abstract Types of Stress Prevention of and Self-Care for Cumulative Stress Traumatic Stress and Secondary Stress 14: Children and traumatic stress Abstract Children’s Emotional Reactions to Traumatic Stress Children’s Physical Reactions to Traumatic Stress Children’s Cognitive Reactions to Traumatic Stress Children’s Behavioral Reactions to Traumatic Stress Trigger Events Risk Factors—Individual Risk Factors—Event The Importance of Individual Differences Challenges in Working with Children Differences in Developmental Stages Strategies for Supporting Children 15: Older adults and people with disabilities Abstract Development Issues and Individual Risk Factors in Late Life What is Normal Aging? Older Adults’ Reactions to Traumatic Stress Delirium Dementia Emotions Special Needs Shelters Following Disasters and Use of Services Social Networks and Caregiving Issues Strategies for Supporting Older Adults Disability Physical Impairment Visual Impairment Hearing Impairment Taste, Smell, and Touch Impairments Conclusions Acknowledgment 16: Community-based psychological first aid with marginalized communities Abstract What is Culture? Being a Helper Understanding Traumatic Stress Community Reactions to Traumatic Stress Disproportionate Impact Cumulative Traumatic Stresses Active Listening Coping Skills Getting Additional Help Making it Relevant for the Community Conclusions Acknowledgment 17: Community-based psychological first aid with rural communities Abstract Characteristics of Rural Communities Rural Values The Case for Rural CBPFA Recommendations Summary Acknowledgment 18: Closing thoughts Abstract Appendix A: Community-based adaptation of CBPFA Subject index