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Biochemical Actions of Hormones V9



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Author: Gerald Litwack

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 28th January 1982

ISBN-13: 9780323153447

Pages: 376

Language: English

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Description

Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume IX is an 11-chapter text that provides the developments in the theoretical and experimental understanding of hormonal actions and regulation. After presenting an overview of research on peptide and steroid hormones, this volume goes on exploring the lipotropins and their active degradation products, as well as the adenylate cyclase enzyme regulation by adrenergic receptors. These topics are followed by discussions on the potassium ion conductance in the pancreatic beta cell; the concept of the insulin sensitive chemoreceptor of the central nervous system; the estrogen-induced growth factors and their role in tumor cell growth; and the nuclear acceptors for the avian progesterone receptor. Other chapters consider the structural aspects of steroid hormones and their receptors, with an emphasis on the importance of pyridoxal phosphate research studies on a better understanding of the steroid receptors function. This book also looks into an affinity label for glucocorticoid receptors and the development of a polyclonal antibody for this receptor. The concluding chapter emphasizes the regulation of the steroid sulfotransferases. This volume will be of great value to biologists, biochemists, and researchers who are interested in the biochemical aspects of hormones.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors Preface 1. The Lipotropins I. Introduction II. Isolation and Primary Structure of Sheep ß-LPH III. Total Synthesis of ßs-LPH IV. A Glu1/Glu1 Polymorphism in ß5-LPH V. Isolation and Primary Structure of Human ß-LPH VI. Isolation and Characterization of γ-LPH VII. Lipotropins from Mouse Pituitary Cell VIII. Conformation of ß-LPH IX. Relationship of Structure to Lipolytic Activity of ßs-LPH X. Radioimmunoassay XL Immunohistochemical Localization of ß-LPH in the Pituitary and Brain XII. Biological Properties XIII. ß-Lipotropin—The Prohormone and ß-Endorphin XIV. ß-Lipotropin—The Prohormone for ß-MSH XV. Concluding Remarks References 2. Regulation of Adenylate Cyclase by Adrenergic Receptors I. Introduction II. α- and ß-Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes III. ß-Adrenergic Receptor Regulation of Adenylate Cyclase IV. α-Adrenergic Receptor Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase Reference 3. Nutritional Regulation of K+ Conductance: An Unsettled Aspect of Pancreatic B Cell Physiology I. Introduction II. Chronology and Magnitude of the Changes in K+ Conductance III. Consequences of the Glucose-Induced Change in K+ Permeability IV. Mechanism of the Glucose-Induced Changes in K+ Conductance V. Concluding Remarks References 4. Insulin Sensitive Glucoregulator Chemoreceptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Putative Role in Glucose Homeostasis I. Hepatic Glucose Metabolism as the Final Common Pathway of Blood Sugar Regulation II. CNS Glucoreceptors III. Insulin Sensitive CNS Receptors IV. Demonstration of Insulin in the CNS V. Biological Perspectives and Unanswered Questions VI. Summary References 5. Estrogen-Inducible Growth Factors: Proposal of New Mechanisms of Estrogen-Promoted Tumor Cell Growth I. Introduction II. Three Possible Estromedin Mechanisms III. Evidence for an Endocrine Estromedin Control of Estrogen-Responsive Tumor Cell Growth IV. Evidence for Either Paracrine or Autocrine Estromedin Control In Vivo V. Summary of the Relationship of the Estromedin Hypothesis to Other Estrogenic Models References 6. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Acceptors for the Avian Progesterone Receptor I. Introduction II. General Mechanism of Action of Steroid Hormones III. Studies on the Existence and Chemical Nature of Nuclear Acceptor Sites for Many Steroid-Target Tissue Systems IV. Cell-Free Nuclear Binding Assays as Probes for the Nuclear Acceptor Sites V. The Approach to the Chemical Characterization of the Chromatin Acceptor Sites for the Progesterone Receptor in the Hen Oviduct VI. Evidence for Masking the Majority of Progesterone Acceptor Sites in the Avian Oviduct Chromatin: Role of Chromatin Nonhistone Proteins VII. Chemical Characterization of the Nuclear Acceptor Sites for the Avian Oviduct Progesterone Receptor VIII. Related Findings in Other Steroid-Target Tissue Systems IX. A Brief Examination of Some Other Types of Acceptor Sites X. Intranuclear Localization of the Acceptor Sites XL Conclusions References 7. The Use of Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate as a Tool in the Study of Steroid Receptors I. Introduction II. Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate and Schiff Base Formation III. The Use of Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate to Elucidate the Mechanism of Action of the Glucocorticoid Receptor IV. Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate as a Probe of Other Steroid Receptors V. Summary References 8. Affinity Labeling of Glucocorticoid Receptors: New Methods in Affinity Labeling I. Introduction II. Description of Various Methods of Affinity Labeling III. Progress and Possibilities with Various Affinity Label Methods in Yielding Covalent Glucocorticoid Receptor-Steroid Complexes IV. Conclusions References 9. Immunochemical Approaches to the Study of Glucocorticoid Receptors I. Introduction II. Partial Purification of the [3H]Triamcinolone – Receptor Complex for Use as an Antigen III. Detection of Anti-Glucocorticoid Receptor Antibodies IV. Immunoaffinity Chromatography of the Rat Liver [3H]Triamcinolone—Receptor Complex V. Specificity of the Antisera VI. Discussion and Directions for Future Research References 10. The Properties and the Endocrine Control of the Production of the Steroid Sulfotransferases I. Introduction II. The Importance of Steroid Sulfates III. Steroid Sulfotransferases IV. Sex Differences of Hepatic Steroid Sulfotransferase Content as Evidence for Endocrine Control of the Production of the Enzymes V. Gonadal Control of Steroid Sulfotransferase Production VI. Adrenal Control of Glucocorticoid Sulfotransferase Production VII. Pituitary Control of Glucocorticoid Sulfotransferase Production VIII. Other Aspects of Endocrine Control of Glucocorticoid Sulfotransferase Production IX. Glucocorticoid Sulfotransferases in Hypertension, Diabetes, and Aging 11. Chemical Substitution of Steroid Hormones: Effect on Receptor Binding and Pharmacokinetics I. Introduction II. Contribution of Receptor Affinity, Plasma Binding, and Metabolism to Activity III. Effect of Chemical Substitution on Receptor Affinity, Plasma Binding, and Metabolism IV. Conclusions References Index Contents of Previous Volumes