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Agglutination, Complement, Neutralization, and Inhibition


Author: Curtis A. WilliamsMerrill W. Chase

Publisher: Academic Press

Publish Date: 28th November 1977

ISBN-13: 9781483220598

Pages: 488

Language: English



Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Volume IV: Agglutination, Complement, Neutralization, and Inhibition provides information pertinent to direct and indirect agglutination reactions. This book covers a variety of topics, including complement-fixation procedures, isolation of complement components, hemolytic intermediates, complement-related proteins, and neutralization reactions.Organized into three chapters, this volume begins with an overview of test-tube agglutinations that are preferred for blood grouping with saline agglutinins that require more than a few minutes for agglutination. This text then describes blood group antibodies that agglutinate red blood cells suspended in saline. Other chapters consider the classical pathway of complement utilization. This book discusses as well the complexity of events leading to hemolysis of erythrocytes by complement. The final chapter deals with the ability of antitoxin to neutralize diphtheria toxin and explains the quantitative relationships between antigen and antibody.This book is a valuable resource for immunologists, scientists, and research workers.

Table of Contents

Contributors to Volume IV Preface Contents of Other Volumes Chapter l6. Agglutination and Fiocculation A. Direct Hemagglutination Slide Agglutination Tube Agglutination: Saline Agglutinins Quantitative Cell-Counting Method Tube Agglutination: Incomplete Antibodies and Cold Agglutinins Enzyme-Treated Erythrocytes Lectins B. Indirect (Passive) Hemagglutination Direct Passive-Polysaccharide Adsorption on Untreated Erythrocytes Hemagglutination with Tannic Acid-Treated Erythrocytes Antigen-Erythrocyte Conjugates Prepared with Bisdiazobenzidine Preparation of Stable Formalinized Antigen-Erythrocyte Conjugates Special Methods of Chemical Bonding for Preparing Antigen-Erythrocyte Conjugates Chromic Chloride, Carbodiimide Coupling, Difluorodinitrobenzene Specific Coupling to Erythrocyte Antigenic Sites Antiglobulin Reactions with Erythrocytes Direct, Indirect Reactions Inhibition Tests Antiglobulin Consumption Test The Red Cell-Linked Antigen Test Mixed Agglutination and Erythrocytes The Mixed Agglutination Reaction The Mixed Antiglobulin Reaction The Mixed Hemadsorption Test C. Inhibition of Hemagglutination Inhibition by Antibodies and Antibody-like Reagents: Semiquantitative Tube Tests Quantitative Inhibition (Cell-Counting Method) D. Bacterial Agglutination Preparation of Bacteria as Antigens Special Antigens Antisera Agglutination Tests Tube Tests Cover Slip Tests Macroscopic Slide Tests Enumeration of Bacterial Colonies in Liquid Media Antigens Inhibiting Agglutination Interpretation and Applications E. Immobilization of Motile Bacteria by Anti-Flagellar Antibody F. Agglutination of Spermatozoa General Considerations The Sperm Antigens Preparation of Heteroand Autospermagglutinins Semen Examination Spermagglutination: Macroscale Semi-Microscale Microscale Comparisons of the Various Spermagglutination Methods G. Agglutination with Antigen on Inert Particles 1. Latex Fixation Techniques 2. The Bentonite Flocculation Test Chapter 17. Complement A. Introduction The Classical Pathway of Complement Utilization Alternative Pathway for C3 Activation Principles of Quantitation of Complement Components Complement Fixation Reactions Topical Presentation of Complement Components Key to Buffers for the Complement System B. Immune Hemolysis and Complement Fixation 1. Diluents and Reagents 2. General Procedures 3. Complement Fixation Tests 4. Passive Immune Hemolysis C. Preparation of Hemolytic Intermediates 1. General Considerations 2. Hemolytic Intermediates from Guinea Pig Complement 3. Measurement of Hemolytic Intermediates of Guinea Pig Complement 4. Hemolytic Intermediates from Human Complement D. Isolation and Assay of Complement Components 1. Introduction 2. Complement Components from Human Serum 3. Complement Components from Guinea Pig Serum E. Isolation and Assay of Complement-Related Proteins 1. Introduction 2. Isolation and Assay of Human Serum C1-Inhibitor (C1-INH) 3. Human C3b-Inactivator (C3b-In, or Conglutinogen-Activating Factor, KAF) 4. Isolation and Assay of Human Properdin 5. Isolation and Assay of Properdin Factor D 6. Purification of Properdin Factor B (C3PA, GBG, C3-Proactivator). Preparations of Human Properdin Factor B 7. Isolation of Cobra Venom Factor (CoF, CVF) 8. Formation and Isolation of Anaphylatoxin C3a 9. Anaphylatoxin C5a (Human, Guinea Pig) F. Antisera to Complement Proteins 1. Introduction 2. Antisera to Guinea Pig Components 3. Rabbit Antisera to Human Complement Components 4. Detection of Complement in Tissues by Fluorochrome-Coupled Anti-C3 Chapter 18. Neutralization Reactions A. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems 1. Introduction 2. Methods for Toxin and Antitoxin Assay in Vitro 3. Neutralization of Toxin in Vivo B. Enzyme-Antibody Interactions 1. Characterization of the Enzyme-Antibody Interaction 2. Mechanism of Modification of Enzyme Activity by Antibody Introduction 3. Immunoenzymological Comparisons C. Virus Neutralization 1. Immunological Reactions of Bacteriophages 2. Antibody Reactions with Chemically Modified Bacteriophages Appendix I World Health Organization Report on Nomenclature of Complement Nomenclature of Complement Components of Complement First Component (C1) Intermediate Complexes Complement Components Showing Altered Activity Fragments and Chains Complement Factors Not Directly Involved in the Haemolytic Sequence Signatories Appendix II The International System of Units: SI Nomenclature Introduction Basic Units and Multiples Supplementary Units Derived SI Units with Special Names Examples of Other Derived SI Units Units to Be Allowed in Conjunction with SI Examples of Units Contrary to SI, with their Equivalents Author Index Subject Index